Type 2 Diabetes

Know About Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a life-long disease marked by high levels of sugar in the blood. It occurs when the body does not respond correctly to insulin, a hormone released by the pancreas. It is the most common form of diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes, formerly called adult-onset or non insulin-dependent diabetes, is the most common form of diabetes. One can develop this disease at any age. It usually begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which fat, muscle, and liver cells do not use insulin properly. Insulin resistance means that insulin produced by your pancreas cannot get inside fat and muscle cells to produce energy.

In this disease, pancreas gradually lose the ability to secrete enough insulin in response to meals. Overweight and inactive people have more chances of developing type 2 diabetes. Treatment includes taking diabetes medicines, making wise food choices, exercising regularly, taking aspirin daily (for some), and controlling blood pressure and cholesterol.

Increased thirst, increased hunger, fatigue, increased urination and weight loss are some common symptoms. Blurry vision or heart trouble may be a result of this disease. Type 2 diabetes is usually a gradual process.

Exercising regularly, reducing fat and calorie intake, and losing a little weight can help reduce risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Lowering blood pressure and cholesterol levels also helps one stay healthy.

Although family history and genetics play a large role in type 2 diabetes, low activity level, poor diet, and excess body weight (especially around the waist) greatly contribute to this disease. Other risk factors include race/ ethnicity, age greater than 45, impaired glucose tolerance, high blood pressure and history of gestational diabetes.

Treatment starts with efforts to stabilize blood glucose level followed by exercise and diet. The ongoing goals are to prevent long-term complications and prolong your life. A patient must learn basic diabetes management skills. These skills include- testing blood sugar level, recognizing abnormality in it, and taking proper medicine and diet. Regular self-testing of your blood sugar tells you how well is your combination of diet, exercise, and medication is working. A device called a glucometer can provide an exact blood sugar reading.

When diet and exercise do not help maintain normal or near-normal blood glucose levels, medicines could be taken. Oral sulfonylureas, Biguanides (Metformin), Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (such as acarbose) and Thiazolidinediones are some commonly used medicines.