|Insipidus: A Rare But Troublesome Form Of Diabetes|
Although diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus are unrelated, they can have similar signs and symptoms, like excessive thirst and excessive urination.
When fluid regulation system works properly, kidneys make less urine to conserve fluid when the body is losing water. When this precise system for regulating the kidneys' handling of fluids is disrupted, diabetes insipidus occurs. Central DI is the most common form of DI resulting from damage to the pituitary gland that disrupts normal release and storage of ADH. To treat the ADH deficiency a synthetic hormone called desmopressin can be taken by an injection, a nasal spray, or a pill.
Dipsogenic DI is a third type caused by a defect in or damage to the thirst mechanism, which is located in the hypothalamus. This defect results in an abnormal increase in thirst and fluid intake that suppresses ADH secretion and increases urine output. This fluid "overload" can lead to water intoxication, a condition that lowers the concentration of sodium in the blood and can seriously damage the brain.
With the help of urine analysis and fluid deprivation test, DI can be diagnosed. The urine of a person with DI will be less concentrated. A physician evaluates the concentration of urine by measuring how many particles are present in a kilogram of water or by comparing the weight of the urine to an equal volume of distilled water (specific gravity). Fluid deprivation test helps determine whether DI is caused by excessive intake of fluid, a defect in ADH production, or due to a defect in the kidneys' response to ADH.
Although it's a rare disease, one must notice it's symptoms as it may even lead to grave consequences.