Diabetes Basics

Diabetes And Its Complications


A diabetic patient's misery doesn't end with regulation of blood sugar level or diet control, in most of the cases it gives way to a number of post disease complications. These complications may be of different levels of severity depending upon patient's sincerity towards precautionary measures. Some of the following complications are likely to crop upas a consequence of diabetes:


A) Diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar coma is one of the consequence that needs emergency treatment.

Normally, it is the Type 2 diabetics who face this complication that results in sudden decrease in consciousness, extremely high level of blood glucose without ketone acids and increased dehydration. It is mainly a result of negligence towards proper medication. Fluid loss is increased or glucose tolerance is impaired by either certain infections or by improper medication. Old age, kidney's inefficiency, heart attack and stroke may be some other reasons for it.

B) Diabetic retinopathy is one of such diseases which occurs due to damaged blood vessels of retina. Initial level of disease causes blurred vision, it is called non-proliferated diabetic retinopathy. While later stage of disease is called Proliferative retinopathy which results in blood vessel bleeding that gives way to vision loss. To prevent this disease, blood pressure, blood sugar and cholesterol should be kept in control. Laser surgery, virectomy are the remedial measures used.

C) Kidney dysfunction called diabetic nephropathy is another consequence of diabetes caused by thickening of blood vessels (glomerulus) of nephrons. Later on, these blood vessels get destroyed which may end in to kidney failure. In early stage, nephropathy shows no symptoms but gradually, swelling around eyes, foamy appearance of urine, swelling of legs and unintentional weight gain may be noticed. Disease is confirmed with the help of kidney biopsy.

D) Course of treatment involves drugs like
Angiotensin converting enzyme and Angiotensin receptor blockers. Kidney transplant and dialysis becomes mandatory in final stage.

E) Diabetic Neuropathy is common among diabetes mellitus patients. It's mainly a consequence of damaged nerve cells. Initially peripheral nerves get damaged that result in tingling but later on it takes the form of painless neuropathy.

Nerves that regulate involuntary functions of body also get affected, it is known as autonomic neuropathy. It causes heart complications, low BP, and sexual impotence. Numbness, dizziness, lack of sensation in body parts and constipation are some other symptoms. Treatment aims at reducing symptoms through medication.

F) Arteriosclerosis is another disease arising out of diabetes. It causes hardening of arteries that goes to legs. It results in leg pain, numbness, and muscle pain. It reduces sensitivity of foot to injuries. Course of treatment aims at reducing symptoms to maintain smooth blood flow in arteries. Medicines may also be needed. Extreme cases may require surgery.

Diabetes is a disease that may give way to a lot of complications, if not paid heed to. Complications also include some lipid disorders due to deposition of excessive fat in blood which gives way to hypertension and vascular diseases. So, a diabetic must do away with these complications as consequences are life threatening.