Diabetes Basics

Diabetes Insipidus may be related to other factors than sugar!

Diabetes Insipidus is a disease which is also known as Water diabetes. The main symptoms of Diabetes Insipidus are that it leads to an excess amount of urine being passed by the patient and it caused by lack of vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone) or in case the kidneys of patient stop responding to the said hormone.

The most common symptoms of Diabetes Insipidus are the excess amount of passage of urine by the patient along with increased thirst and no decline in the amount of urine passage by patient despite reduction of liquid intake. In some cases, vision may be blurred as well. Adults who have Diabetes Insipidus may be able to counter it by increasing water intake but there is always a looming risk of dehydration.

Diabetes Insipidus is most commonly caused due to the malfunctioning of the pineal gland in the brain. The failure of the pineal gland to create the antidiuretic hormone leads to the kidneys being unable to regulate the water recycling metabolism in our body. Water, being one of the most important needs of human body is being constantly processed by the kidneys. The antidiuretic hormone is actually the carrier of signal to the kidneys. Lack of the hormome means that pineal gland fails to properly communicate with the kidneys. This affects the water retention and processing ability of the kidneys which ultimately leads to Diabetes Insipidus.

In order to diagnose the presence of Diabetes Insipidus, physicians generally test calcium, blood glucose and bicarbonate.If a fluid deprivation test is done we can determine if excessive intake of fluid, a defective response by kidneys to ADH or lack of ADH production is causing Diabetes Insipidus. A physician will also measure blood electrolytes to check if the sodium levels in the body are not high.

Diabetes Insipidusis can be put in four known categories. The first type of diabetes insipidusis is Neurogenic Diabetes Insipidusis which occurs due to lack of production of the antidiuretic hormone. In some cases it may be called central hypothalamic, pituitary or neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidusis. Another kind of Diabetes Insipidusisis is Nephrogenic which occurs due to lack of the kidney sensitivity towards the antidiuretic hormone. The third kind of diabetes insipidusis is Gestagenic or the gestational diabetes insipidusis which is caused by a lack of hormone, this type occurs only during pregnancy and therefore is limited to women only. Fourth type of diabetes insipidusis is Dipsogenic. This kind is basically a primary polydipsia. It occurs due to abnormal thirst and the excessive intake of water or other liquids.

Neurogenic and Gestational Diabetes Insipidusis are generally treated by using a drug called desmopressin. Nephrogenic type is treated using diuretic hydrochlorothiazide. Regular fluid intake is also recommended for patients.